The word schizophrenia means splitting of the mind. Schizophrenia is characterized by disturbances in thought and verbal behaviour, perception, affect, motor behaviour and relationship to the external world. Clear consciousness and intellectual capacity are usually maintained, although certain cognitive deficit may evolve.
The disturbance involves the most basic functions that give the normal person a feeling of individuality, uniqueness, and self-direction. Schizophrenia is a severe psychiatric disorder characterized by chronic or recurrent psychosis.
Majority of individuals initially experience symptoms in their 20s. Males and Females are equally affected
Include positive psychotic symptoms, negative psychotic symptoms, cognitive impairment, abnormal motor behavior and mood symptoms
In thought and speech: Autistic thinking, Loosening of association, thought blocking, poverty of speech, mutism, delusion (unshakable false beliefs), Word salad, Echolalia, Flight of ideas, circumstantial speech, Tangential speech, Pressured speech
In Perception: Hallucinations ( Perception without stimuli) – it can be in the form of auditory or visual mainly
In affect: Apathy, emotional blunting, emotional shallowness, anhedonia (inability to experience pleasure) inappropriate emotional response
In motor behavior : There can be either decease (decreased spontaneity, inertia, stupor) or an increase in psychomotor activity (excitement, aggressiveness, restlessness, agitation)
Catatonia: abnormal movements and reactivity to the environment
Positive symptoms of psychosis: Hallucinations, Illusions, Delusions (Bizzare, non-bizarre, Grandiosity, Ideas of Reference, Paranoia, Persecutory, Erotomania, Jealousy ), disorganized thought and speech Processes( Loose associations, word salad, Neologisms, Echolalia, Flight of ideas, Clang association, circumstantial speech, tangential speech, Thought blocking, Pressured speech)
Negativesymptoms of psychosis: Flat affect, Avolition, Alogia, Anhedonia, Apathy
Schizophreniform disorder: Duration of symptoms: 1-6 months, Negative symptoms
Brief Psychotic disorder: hallucinations, Disorganised speech, catatonic behviour, usually develops after stressful life events
Schizoaffective disorder: Psychotic symptoms with or without mood symptoms
Mood disorder with psychotic features
Clinical diagnosis is done based on ICD11 or DSM 5 criteria